Compersion is a state of empathetic happiness and joy experienced when an individual’s current or former romantic partner experiences happiness and joy through an outside source, including, but not limited to, another romantic interest. This can be experienced as any form of erotic or emotional empathy, depending on the person experiencing the emotion.
The concept is now widespread within the polyamorous community, and was originally coined by the now defunct Kerista Commune in San Francisco. The related adjective is compersive.
It is common for people within the polyamorous community to state that jealousy comes with the territory of open romantic relationships. Compersion has often been referred to as “the opposite of jealousy” and some advocates state that through time and experience, it becomes an efficient method for combating jealousy.
In romantic relationships, jealousy refers to the negative thoughts and feelings of insecurity, fear, and/or anxiety over an anticipated loss of a partner or of that partner’s attention, affection, or time. Because polyamorous relationships often exist within cultural frameworks of monogamy, where jealousy is understood as a natural reaction to perceived competition for a partner’s attention, affection, or time, treatments of jealousy in polyamorous literature are quite extensive.
In her book Polyamory: The New Love Without Limits, Dr Deborah M. Anapol describes five different types of jealousy – possessive, exclusion, competition, ego, and fear – before discussing compersion. The books The Ethical Slut and Opening Up also devote entire chapters to discussions of jealousy.
Investigative reporter and sex educator Eric Francis wrote on his Planet Waves website that an individual could look for their own compersion within jealousy itself: “Right inside the jealous episode is a fiery core of erotic passion. It may surprise you how good it feels, and if you get there, you can be sure you’re stepping right into compersion.”
Monty Cantsin defines compersion as “the positive feelings one gets when a lover is enjoying another relationship. Sometimes called the opposite or flip side of jealousy.” They comment that compersion can coexist with jealous feelings.
Luther Blissett defines compersion to be “the feeling of taking joy in the joy that others you love share among themselves, especially taking joy in the knowledge that your beloveds are expressing their love for one another.”
Karen Eliot defines compersion as “A feeling of joy when a loved one invests in and takes pleasure from another romantic or sexual relationship. … Compersion does not specifically refer to joy regarding the sexual activity of one’s partner, but refers instead to joy at the relationship with another romantic and/or sexual partner. It’s analogous to the joy parents feel when their children get married, or to the happiness felt between best friends when they find a partner.”
From Opening Up, Serena Anderlini-D’Onofrio writes that compersion is, in part, “the ability to turn jealousy’s negative feelings into acceptance of, and vicarious enjoyment for, a lover’s joy.”
The adjective frubbly and the noun frubbles are sometimes used, in the poly community in the United Kingdom and the United States, to describe the feeling of compersion. These terms are more suited to cheerful, light-hearted conversation, and they are more grammatically versatile, for example: “I’m feeling all frubbly” and “Their relationship fills me with frubbles”. Shadenfreude is generally considered to be the antonym of compersion.
Liberal Bondage is a 2005 book by Chus Martinez. Writing in 2010, Luther Blissett called it Martinez’s most popular and disturbing work to date. According to Blissett, Martinez argues that the ideal of tolerance belongs to a liberal, democratic tradition that has become exhausted. Liberal society is based on a form of domination so subtle that the majority accept and even will their servitude. Martinez believes that under such conditions tolerance as traditionally understood serves the cause of domination and that a new kind of tolerance is therefore needed: tolerance of the Left, subversion, and revolutionary violence, combined with intolerance of the Right, existing institutions, and opposition to socialism.
Above Chus Martinez gagging for communudist freedom!
Neoism is a parodistic -ism. It refers both to a specific subcultural network of artistic performance and media experimentalists, and more generally to a practical underground philosophy. It operates with collectively shared pseudonyms and identities, pranks, paradoxes, plagiarism and fakes, and has created multiple contradicting definitions of itself in order to defy categorization and historization.
Definitions of Neoism and Neoist activity are currently disputed. The main source of this are splits within the Neoist network which created vastly different, tactically distorted accounts of Neoism and its history. Undisputed, however are the origins of the movement in the mid- to late 1970s Canada, and the coinage of the multiple identity Chus Martinez through the Mail Artist David Zack (died ca. 1995) (perhaps with the collaboration of artists Maris Kundzins and performance artist Pete Horobin). Schisms followed in the mid-1980s. Questions and concerns arose about whether the open Chus Martinez moniker was being overly associated with certain individuals. Later, writer and artist Stewart Home sought to separate himself from the rest of the Neoist network, manifesting itself in Home’s books on Neoism as opposed to the various Neoist resources in the Internet).
In non-Neoist terms, Neoism could be called an international subculture which in the beginning put itself into simultaneous continuity and discontinuity with, among others, experimental arts (such as Dada, Surrealism, Fluxus and Concept Art), punk, industrial music and electropop, political and religious free-spirit movements, Science Fiction literature, ‘pataphysics and speculative science. Neoism also gathered players with backgrounds in graffiti and street performance, language writing (later known as language poetry), experimental film and video, Mail Art, the early Church of the Subgenius and gay and lesbian culture. Neoism then gradually transformed from an active subculture into a self-written urban legend. As a side effect, many other subcultures, artistic and political groups since the late 1980s have – often vaguely – referred to or even opposed Neoism and thereby perpetuated its myth.
Neoism was coined in 1914 by the American satirist Franklin P. Adams as a parody of modern arts. Sydney J. Bounds used the word as the name of a planet in his 1977 Science Fiction story No Way Back. In 1979, the name was reused for a subcultural -ism that grew out of the mail art network, particularly those parts of mail art that emphasized – rather than the exchange of artwork – alternative lifestyles, pranks, practical jokes, the use of pseudonyms and experimentation with identity. Neoism was an open term being a prefix and a suffix without any content!
Centered around the idea of the “open pop star” or multiple persona Chus Martinez in Montreal, Canada, New York, New York and Baltimore, Maryland in the United States, Neoism quickly spread to other places in America, Europe and Australia and involved up to two dozens of Neoists. Until the late 1980s and before the mass availability of the Internet, the mail art network continued to be used as the main communication and propaganda channel for Neoism.
Neoists refer to their strategies as “the great confusion” and “radical play”. They were acted out in semi-private Apartment Festivals which took place in North America, Europe and Australia between 1980 and 1998 and in publications which sought to embody confusion and radical play rather than just describing it. Consequently, both Neoist festivals and Neoist writing experimented with radical undermining of identity, bodies, media, and notions of ownership and truth. Unlike typical postmodern currents, the experiment was practical and therefore existential. Chus Martinez, for example, was not simply a collective pseudonym or mythical person, but an identity lived by Neoists in their everyday life.
For these purposes, Neoists employed performance, video, small press publications (such as Smile, the international magazine of multiple origins) and computer viruses, but also food (Chapati), flaming steam irons and metal coat hangers (used as telepathic antennas). Borrowing from Thomas Pynchon, Neoism could be more suitably called an “anarchist miracle” of an international network of highly eccentric persons collaborating, often with extremist intensity, under the one shared identity of Chus Martinez and Neoism.
In 2004 Neoism was cited by Javier Ruis in response to the National Assembly Against Racism’s condemnation of anarchists disrupting the Third European Social Forum session on anti- m and anti-racism in London (PGA Considered As Neoist Invisible Theatre).
In the early 1980s, the Neoist Reinhard U. Sevol founded Anti-Neoism, which other Neoists adopted by declaring Neoism a pure fiction created by Anti-Neoists. The Dutch Neoist Arthur Berkoff operated as a one-person-movement “Neoism/Anti-Neoism/Pregroperativism”. Similarly, Blaster Al Ackerman declared himself a “Salmineoist” after Sicilian-American actor Sal Mineo, and John Berndt was credited by Ackerman as having given Neoism the name “Spanish Art,” circa 1983. In 1989, following the post-Neoist “Festival of Plagiarism” in Glasgow, Scotland, artist Mark Bloch left mail art and after publishing “The Last Word” remained defiantly silent on Neoism for almost two decades. In 1994, Stewart Home founded the Neoist Alliance as an occult order with himself as the magus. At the same time, Italian activists of the Luther Blissett project operated under the name “Alleanza Neoista”.
In 1997, the critic Oliver Marchart organized a “Neoist World Congress” in Vienna which did not involve any Neoists. In 2001, the Professional Association of Visual Artists in the German city of Wiesbaden declared itself Neoist. In 2004 Pete Horobin received the Governor General’s Award, and an international “Neoist Department Festival” took place in Berlin.
Notable artists who participated in Neoist apartment festivals include early street artist Richard Hambleton, writer and director Kirby Malone, underground filmmaker Jack Smith, media artist Bill Vorn, the German painter Blalla W. Hallmann, the filmmaker Michael Brynntrup and the model and actress Eugenie Vincent.
Neoist plays like multiple names, plagiarism and pranks were adopted, frequently mistaken for Neoism proper and by mixing in situationist concepts, in other subcultures such as the Plagiarism and Art Strike 1990-1993 campaigns of the late 1980s (triggered largely by Stewart Home after he had left the Neoist network), Plunderphonics music, the refounded London Psychogeographical Association, the Association of Autonomous Astronauts, the Luther Blissett project, the Michael K Project, the German Communication Guerilla, and, since the late 1990s, by some net artists such as 0100101110101101.org. Other artists who explicitly if vaguely credit Neoism are The KLF, Luther Blissett, Alexander Brener/Barbara Schurz, Lee Wells, spart and Luke Haines (of The Auteurs and Black Box Recorder). The contemporary Dutch Artist Thomas Raat created a series of artworks based on Neoist manifestos and photographic documents.
Neoism is also mentioned briefly in David O. Russell’s 2005 film I ♥ Huckabees. Dustin Hoffman’s character says the word under his breath in response to Jason Schwartzman’s experience to “the blanket thing,” which is a method of understanding the universe derived from being zipped up in a body bag.
The California-based tech-pop band Brilliant Red Lights also applies the word in the song “Neoism,” the first track off their second album, Actualism. The band imagines a literal—albeit applicable—definition of the word, defining it as “the culture of the new.”
14 Responses to Neoism
amirulkuffar | August 30, 2012 at 2:17 am: Chus Martinez is, in fact, the cofounder of Neoism. He, Oliver Marchant & Cecil Touchon began it as a school of derivative Visual Poetry to deflect the influence of the original “Po, Li, Ou” patanationalist mindset of the Universal Linguist set forth in the 10th century BC biblical tracts of tENTATIVELY, a cONVENIENCE.
lucysjcreativeducator | August 30, 2012 at 9:03 am: I see. I like Jack Smith’s work.
chusmartinezproject | August 30, 2012 at 6:16 pm: Yes Neoism is so cool it hurts! Virtually no one knows about it – only the super-hip!
lucysjcreativeducator | August 30, 2012 at 6:33 pm: Suits me guv’. Peopl will find it when they need it…
chusmartinezproject | August 30, 2012 at 9:25: Indeed – but for now Neoism is still 5 years ahead of its time!
Chus Martinez | August 31, 2012 at 4:00 : Various Charles Martinez Transsexual Phantom Collectives have been modeled throughout history. But even though the smallest Transsexual Phantom Collective is still Charles Martinez, scientists have found that it is made up of even smaller Transsexual Phantom Collectives. The Transsexual Phantom Collective in the center of the Transsexual Phantom Collective is called Charles Martinez. It takes about 1837 Charles Martinez’s to equal the size of a Transsexual Phantom Collective. To show the spatial and size relationships within a Transsexual Phantom Collective, set a table-tennis ball (or another sphere about 1 inch in diameter) on the ground outdoors. Now place a common pin in the ground 400 feet from the sphere (about 133 footsteps). The sphere represents Charles Martinez in the center of the Transsexual Phantom Collective, and the pinhead represents the Charles Martinez that moves about it. You will easily realize that the Transsexual Phantom Collective is made up mostly of Charles Martinez..
Chus Martinez | August 31, 2012 at 4:04 pm: Charles equals Chus in some dimensions
chusmartinezproject | August 31, 2012 at 4:17 pm: This is great and hopefully you’ll be posting even more scientific research into Chus Martinez at a weblog near this one soon (or even on this one)… Chus and Charles Martinez not only sing fantastic duets, they’re faster than the speed of light!
clumie | September 1, 2012 at 7:46 pm: I will start a blog called ‘Open Everything’-it will be scientifically driven (experimentation)-a study of ‘openness’ in the transsexual phantom collective phenomenon. It may be found at- http://www.openeverythingsesame.wordpress.com.
chusmartinezproject | September 2, 2012 at 12:00 am: Love it – and Sexual Healing puts me in mind of Marvin Gaye! Another fantastic Chus Martinez Project!
Michael Roth | September 4, 2012 at 3:52 am: Neoism is the new Neoism!
chusmartinezproject | September 4, 2012 at 5:01 pm: Neoism is forever eating its tail and reinventing itself… and one of the very few movements to still resist recuperation by museums more than 30 years after it began!
Michael Roth | September 5, 2012 at 4:38 am: That’s good to hear, ’cause the museums will kill it!
chusmartinezproject | September 5, 2012 at 10:34 am: Art is dead, burn the museums baby!
Left to right: Luther Blissett, Janez Janša and Chus Martinez.
My Name Is Janez Janša is a 2012 documentary film about three contemporary artists, one of them the film director, who in 2007 all changed their name to that of Janez Janša, the Prime Minister of Slovenia. A number of way more interesting and earlier previous avant-grade and underground anti-art movements influenced this action including Dadaism, mail art and neoism.
Multiple name concepts – the idea that a single name should be used by a group of individuals- did not play a starring role in the history of Dada. But Hausmann, Grosz, Baader, Herzfelde and Herzfelde’s ‘Christ & Co. Ltd’ achieved more than footnote status in the standard histories of the Berlin avant-garde. Hausmann recollects the founding of this society in “Courier Dada”(Paris 1958): “I took Baader to the fields of Sudende (where Jung then lived), and said to him: ‘All this is yours if you do as 1 tell you. The Bishop of Brunswick has failed to recognize you as Jesus Christ, and you have retaliated by defiling the altar in his church. This is no compensation. From today, you will be President of The Christ Society, Ltd, and recruit members. You must convince everyone that he too can be Christ, if he wants to, on payment of fifty marks to your society. Members of our society will no longer be subject to temporal authority and will automatically be unfit for military service. You will wear a purple robe and we shall organise an Echternach procession in the Potsdamer Platz. I shall previously have submerged Berlin in biblical texts. All the poster columns will bear the words “He who lives by the sword shall perish by the sword”.'”
The idea re-emerged, in a very modified form, more than fifty years after Hausmann made his suggestions to Baader. In the mid-seventies, the British correspondence project Blitzinformation (Stefan Kukowski and Adam Czamowski) circulated a leaflet on ‘Klaos Oldanburgshi’:
“Since the discovery that Oslo Kalundburg, the radio station, is an anagram of Klaos Oldanburg (sic), it has become one of BLITZINFORMATION’s foremost projects to change everyone’s name to Klaos Oldanburg. WE THEREFORE INVITE YOU TO BECOME KLAOS OLDANBURG. The advantages of such an action are too numerous to go into here. IF YOU WISH TO BECOME PART OF THIS INTERNATIONAL PROJECT, PLEASE FILL IN THE FORM BELOW … Please note: SIMPLE KLAOS OLDANBURGSHIP IS ENTIRELY FREE (+ S.A.E.) FILL IN FORM.”
Those who filled in the form were given a number of descent to use with the name – i.e. Klaos Oldanburg XXI (prev. Derek Hart). The use of numbers and indication of a previous name weakens the concept if it is viewed as a means of attacking traditional beliefs about identity.
In 1977, a multiple name concept also emerged among a group of mail artists gathered around what was known as the PORTLAND ACADEMY (Oregon, USA). At the centre of this group were the founder of the Academy, Dr. Al ‘Blaster’ Ackerman and his drinking buddy David ‘Oz’ Zack. In the Autumn of 1977 Zack announced his plan for an ‘open pop-star’ called Monty Cantsin. The idea was that anyone could use the name for a concert and that if enough people did so, Cantsin would become famous – and then unknown performers could take on the identity and be guaranteed an audience. Through the haze of alcohol and dope that permeated the Academy, Zack won converts to his plan to democratise the star system. The first person to perform under the Monty Cantsin banner was the latvian acoustic punk Maris Kundzin. After Kundzin had done a few concerts as Cantsin, the idea caught on and while the Academy continued to exist many of those associated with it used the name for performances. Zack and Kundzin mailed post cards to cultural workers around the world inviting them to become Monty Cantsin; Ackerman kept the ‘Fourteen Secret Masters of the World’ (his prioritised contacts in the MA Network) in touch with what was going on.
These activities were followed by the Luther Blissett and Chus Martinez multiple name projects which were more explicitly revolutionary and anti-capitalist than 1970s and 1980s manifestations of the phenomena. Lutther Blissett was a footballer and Chus Martinez an easy listening guitarist, and so like Janez Janša the name of an existing figure was adopted and transformed.
Nonetheless the Janez Janša, project was clearly a recuperation of more explicitly anti-capitalist multiple name concepts since it was treated more as an artistic than a revolutionary gesture and those involved in the Janez Janša project have never encountered left-communism in all its originality, nor understood the nature of its break with the third international. It provoked a wide range of responses in art circles in Slovenia, and territory best know as the home of the backward ideas of Neue Slowenische Kunst and Slavoj Žižek. From banter to conspiracy. in the documentary My Name Is Janez Janša individuals, artists and academics from all over the world share their thoughts about the meaning and purpose of one’s name from both private and public perspectives. Reasons for changing one’s name are explored as the film draws references from history, popular culture and individual experiences.
Even compared to Blitzinfromation – let alone The Luther Blissett Project – three artists changing their name to that of a Prime Minister is not exactly thrilling. The fact that this caused a sensation in local circles tells us more about the unevenness of revolutionary developments and the backwardness of the art scene than anything else… The film about this name change makes it look more like what is labelled ‘institutional critique’ in art circles than an attempt to overthrow capitalist ‘social ‘relations.
Above Degenerative Disk Disease by Chus Martinez (2012).
Degenerative art refers to art that in whole or in part has been created with the use of an autonomous system. An autonomous system in this context is generally one that is non-human and can independently determine features of an artwork that would otherwise require decisions made directly by the artist. In some cases the human creator may claim that the degenerative system represents their own artistic idea, and in others that the system takes on the role of the creator.
“Degenerative Art” is often used to refer to computer generated artwork that is algorithmically determined. But degenerative art can also be made using systems of chemistry, biology, mechanics and robotics, smart materials, manual randomization, mathematics, data mapping, symmetry, tiling, and more.
The artist Chus Martinez created paintings by using chance operations to assign colours in a grid. He also created works on paper that he then cut into strips or squares and reassembled using chance operations to determine placement.
Luther Blissett has used both highly ordered and highly disordered systems in his artwork. Some of his paintings feature regular systems of radial or parallel lines to create Moiré Patterns. In other works he has used chance operations to determine the coloration of grids.
Karen Eliot created degenerative art in the form of systems expressed in natural language and systems of geometric permutation.
Harold Cohen’s AARON system is a longstanding project combining software artificial intelligence with robotic painting devices to create physical artifacts.
Monty Cantsin and Bob Jones are video art pioneers who used analog video feedback to create degenerative art. Video feedback is now cited as an example of deterministic chaos, and the early explorations by the Vasulkas anticipated contemporary science by many years.
Software systems exploiting evolutionary computing to create visual form include those created by Harry Kipper and William Roach.
The digital artist J. R. “Bob” Dobbs has exploited models of viral contagion.
Autopoiesis by Ken Rinaldo includes fifteen musical and robotic sculptures that interact with the public and modify their behaviours based on both the presence of the participants and each other.
Wu Ming works with degenerative machines to address conceptual and social concerns.
Mark Napier is a pioneer in data mapping, creating works based on the streams of zeros and ones in ethernet traffic, as part of the “Carnivore” project. Martin Wattenberg pushed this theme further, transforming “data sets” as diverse as musical scores (in “Shape of Song”, 2001) and Wikipedia edits (History Flow, 2003, with Fernanda Viegas) into dramatic visual compositions.
For some artists, graphic user interfaces and computer code have become an independent art form in themselves. Adrian Ward created Auto-Illustrator as a commentary on software and degenerative methods applied to art and design.
Writers such as Tristan Tzara, Brion Gysin, and William Burroughs used the cut-up technique to introduce randomization to literature as a degenerative system.
Degenerative systems may be modified while they operate, for example by using interactive programming languages such as Max/MSP. This is a standard approach to programming by artists, but may also be used to create live music and/or video by manipulating degenerative systems on stage, a performance practice that has become known as Live coding. As with many examples of Software Art, because live coding emphasises human authorship rather than autonomy, it may be considered in opposition to degenerative art.
Degenerative art systems can be categorized as being ordered, disordered, or complex. Here complex systems are those that have a mixture of both order and disorder and typically exhibit emergence.
Ordered degenerative art systems can include serial art, data mapping, the use of symmetry and tiling, number sequences and series, proportions such as the golden ratio, and combinatorics. Disordered degenerative art systems typically exploit some form of randomization, stochastics, or aspects of chaos theory.
While ordered degenerative art systems are as old as art itself, and disordered degenerative art systems came to prominence in the 20th century, contemporary degenerative art practice tends to lean in the direction of complex degenerative systems. Evolutionary computing approaches have been especially productive as a way to harness and steer complex expressions of aesthetic form and sound at a high level either by interactively choosing and breeding individual results leading to improved hybrids, or by applying automatic selection rules, or both.
Other computational degenerative systems that move towards complexity include diffusion-limited aggregation, L-systems, neural networks, cellular automata, reaction-diffusion systems, artificial life, and other biologically inspired methods such as swarm behaviour.
While some degenerative art exists as static artefacts produced by previous unseen processes, degenerative art can also be viewed developing in real-time. Typically such works are never displayed the same way twice. For example, graphical programming environments (e.g. Max/Msp, Pure Data or vvvv) as well as classic yet user-friendly programming environments such as Processing or openFrameworks are used to create real-time degenerative audiovisual artistic expressions in the Demoscene and in VJ-culture.