An art nude is a work of art that takes the naked human form as its dominant subject. The term is used for painting, sculpture, photography, and mixed media.
In the tradition of Western art, nudity was common in the painting and sculpture of classical antiquity. In the Christian era, early artists who used nude models included Michelangelo, Botticelli and da Vinci.
Many photographers of nude subjects began to use the term figure nude to describe their “art nude” photos, to avoid description of their works as erotica or pornography.
The term art nude is used for an object of art with a nude human figure making up about one quarter of the surface area and is not intentionally erotic. It does not involve the subject interacting with anyone or the face of the nude as a prominent feature. The nude human form presented is revealed as an object of art and not a person with reference to his or her social relationships and behavioural patterns.
Ruth Bernhard was one of the earliest to describe her photographs as “art nudes”. She particularly noted that she never photographed a nude with the subject looking into the lens. During an interview with Donna Conrad, the 95 year old Bernhard compared her nude photographs to those of Jock Sturges, saying: “I never have made a nude where there is a facial expression.”
Early photographers who have well-known works considered “art nudes” include Imogen Cunningham, Anne Brigman, Edward Weston and Alfred Stieglitz.
A toilet is a sanitation fixture used primarily for the disposal of human excrement and urine, often found in a small room referred to as a toilet/bathroom/lavatory. Flush toilets, which are common in many parts of the world, may be connected to a nearby septic tank or more commonly in urban areas via “large” (3–6 inches, 7.6–15 cm) sewer pipe connected to a sewerage pipe system. The water and waste from many different sources is piped in large pipes to a more distant sewage treatment plant. Chemical toilets are used in mobile and many temporary situations where there is no access to sewerage, dry toilets, including pit toilets and composting toilet require no or little water with excreta being removed manually or composted in situ.
The word toilet may also be used, especially in British English to describe the room containing the fixture, for which euphemisms such as restroom or bathroom are used in American English. Prior to the introduction of modern flush toilets, most human waste disposal was done through the use of household chamber pots, or took place outdoors in outhouses or latrines. Pail closets were introduced in England and France in an attempt to reduce sewage problems in rapidly expanding cities.
Ancient civilisations used toilets attached to simple flowing water sewage systems included those of the Indus Valley Civilization, e.g., Harappa[ and Mohenjo-daro which are located in present day India and Pakistan and also the Romans and Egyptians. Although a precursor to the modern flush toilet system was designed in 1596 by John Harington, such systems did not come into widespread use until the late nineteenth century. Thomas Crapper was one of the early maker of toilets in England.
Diseases, including cholera – which still affects some 3 million people each year, -can be largely prevented when effective sanitation and water treatment prevents faecal matter from contaminating waterways, groundwater and drinking water supplies. Infected water supplies can be treated to make the water safe for consumption and use. There have been five main cholera outbreaks and pandemics since 1825, during one of which 10,000 people died in 1849 in London alone. The physician John Snow proved that deaths were being caused by people drinking water from a source that had been contaminated by a nearby cesspit that was used by people who were infected with cholera. The London sewer system of the time had not reached crowded Soho and many houses had cellars (basements) with overflowing cesspools underneath their floorboards.
According to The Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 by the World Health Organization, 40% of the global population does not have access to “good” ‘excreta disposal facilities’–they live mostly in Asia and Africa. There are efforts being made to design simple effective squat toilets for these people. Usually, they are made by digging a hole, then installing a premade plastic squat toilet seat atop this hole, covering the walls with canvas.
A wet t-shirt contest is an exhibitionistic competition typically featuring young women contestants at a nightclub, bar, or resort. They have traditionally been a staple of college spring break celebrations at locations such as Daytona Beach and Cancún.
Contestants generally wear white or light-coloured t-shirts without bras or other garments beneath. Water is then sprayed or poured onto the participants’ chests, causing their t-shirts to turn translucent and cling to their breasts.
Contestants may take turns dancing or posing before the audience, with the winner decided either by crowd reaction or by the opinions of judges.
In more racy contests, participants may tear or crop their t-shirts to expose midriffs, cleavage, or the undersides of their breasts. Depending on local laws, participants may or may not be allowed to remove their t-shirts during their performance.
The idea of the wet t-shirt contest originated in Spain in the 1940s, around the same time as the introduction of the Spanish festival La Tomatina. La Tomatina is a large public tomato fight where participants become soaked with juice from tomatoes.
In the United States wet t-shirt contests first made an organized appearance in Palm Beach, California in the 1970s. Contests were becoming frequently hosted in local bars and restaurants. Many sources claim that the popularity of wet t-shirt contests can be traced back to Jacqueline Bisset’s appearance in the 1977 film The Deep, where she swam underwater for several scenes wearing only a white t-shirt.
The Spanda system, introduced by Vasugupta (c. 800 AD), is usually described as “vibration/movement of consciousness”. Abhinavagupta uses the expression “some sort of movement” to imply the distinction from physical movement; it is rather a vibration or sound inside the Divine, a throb. The essence of this vibration is the ecstatic self-recurrent consciousness.
The central tenet of this system is “everything is Spanda”, both the objective exterior reality and the subjective world. Nothing exists without movement, yet the ultimate movement takes place not in space or time, but inside the Supreme Consciousness. So, it is a cycle of internalization and externalization of consciousness itself, relating to the most elevated plane in creation (Śiva-Śakti Tattva).
In order to describe the connotations of the Spanda concept, a series of equivalent concepts are enumerated, such as: self recurrent consciousness – vimarśa, unimpeded will of the Supreme Consciousness – svātantrya, supreme creative energy – visarga, heart of the divine – hṛdaya and ocean of light-consciousness – cidānanda.
The most important texts of the system are Śiva Sutras, Spanda Karika and Vijñāna Bhairava Tantra.